HSDPA, High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, or Turbo-3G, which it is often called, is a further development of UMTS, which provides higher throughput from the network to the user. At first, the transfer speed in practice around 500 Kilobytes per second with a theoretical top speed of 10-20 megabits per second.
4G is the fourth generation mobile telephony, an umbrella of standards under development beyond 3G. Much of it is to get mobile systems to fuse together with other networks such as Wi-Fi and WiMAX.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE is considered a 3G radio technology and is part of ITU’s 3G definition.
In wireless telecommunications, roaming is a general term that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. Roaming ensures that the wireless device keeps connected to the network, without losing the connection. The term “roaming” originates from the GSM sphere; the term “roaming” can also be applied to the CDMA technology. Traditional GSM Roaming is defined as the ability for a cellular device to automatically send and receive data, or access other services, including home data services, when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network, by means of using a visited network. This can be done by using a communication terminal or else just by using the subscriber identity in the visited network. Roaming is technically supported by mobility management, authentication, authorization and billing procedures.
Machine to Machine (M2M) refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same ability. This is accomplished through the use of telemetry, which is the language machines use when in communication with each other. Such communication was originally accomplished by having a remote network of machines relay information back to a central hub for analysis, which would then be rerouted into a system like a personal computer.
However, modern M2M communication has expanded beyond a one-to-one connection and changed into a system of networks that transmits data to personal appliances. The expansion of wireless networks across the world has made it far easier for M2M communication to take place and has lessened the amount of power and time necessary for information to be communicated between machines. These networks also allow an array of new business opportunities and connections between consumers and producers in terms of the products being sold.
UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a standard for 3G mobile networks, making it possible to send the packet data as text, video and multimedia with a theoretical transfer rate up to 2 megabits per second. Each user cannot obtain a higher data rate than 384 kbps second downstream.
In third generation mobile telephony, mobile devices provide services with data rates up to 2 Mbps for stationary systems (with HSDPA, it can go up to 14.4 Mbps). Mobile systems can reach up to 384 kbps. 1G was the analog mobile telephony, while the 2G was digital, 3G uses a 5 MHz channel width as a carrier.
GPRS, General Packet Radio Services, is a platform for mobile data networking services in GSM networks. GPRS means that you can transfer data to mobile devices at speeds between 30 and 100 kilobits per second and the device can be constantly connected to GPRS. GPRS is sometimes described as “2.5G”, something between the second and third generation mobile networks.
The home location register (HLR) is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network. There can be several logical, and physical, HLRs per public land mobile network (PLMN), though one international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)/MSISDN pair can be associated with only one logical HLR (which can span several physical nodes) at a time.
The HLRs store details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator. Each SIM has a unique identifier called an IMSI which is the primary key to each HLR record.
The next important items of data associated with the SIM are the MSISDNs, which are the telephone numbers used by mobile phones to make and receive calls. The primary MSISDN is the number used for making and receiving voice calls and SMS, but it is possible for a SIM to have other secondary MSISDNs associated with it for fax and data calls. Each MSISDN is also a primary key to the HLR record. The HLR data is stored for as long as a subscriber remains with the mobile phone operator.
Examples of other data stored in the HLR against an IMSI record are:
- GSM services that the subscriber has requested or been given.
- GPRS settings to allow the subscriber to access packet services.
- Current location of subscriber (VLR and serving GPRS support node/SGSN).
- Call divert settings applicable for each associated MSISDN.
The HLR is a system which directly receives and processes MAP transactions and messages from elements in the GSM network, for example, the location update messages received as mobile phones roam around.